How Does a Transformer Work? Everything You Need to Know

9 May 2023

How does a transformer work? What is its operating principle? Keep reading to learn more about it.

Transformers, which provide the flow of electrical energy between two or more circuits, have a systematic and organized operating principle.

To better understand the operating principle of transformers, let’s first examine their structure.

Transformer Structure

Transformers consist of two coils, known as the primary and secondary coils, and a core, which can be either an air core or an iron core.

The main components of a transformer are:

  1. Core (Iron Core or Air Core)
  2. Coils (Primary and Secondary)

The core, whether it’s made of iron or air, prevents the leakage of magnetic flux between its layers. Therefore, the core plates are insulated from each other. The core, whether iron or air, provides the formation of the magnetic circuit in transformers.

The coil, on the other hand, is divided into two parts: the primary coil (first winding) and the secondary coil (second winding). There is no direct electrical connection between the primary and secondary coils. However, the primary and secondary windings of transformers are isolated from each other. Isolation is achieved through the core.

How Does a Transformer Work?

The transformer starts operating when an alternating voltage is applied to the primary winding, which is also called the primary coil. The strength and direction of the applied voltage vary with time. There is no fixed voltage level applied to the primary coil. The strength and direction of the alternating voltage change over time. The operating principle of transformers relies on inducing voltage in the secondary winding.

In summary, transformers transfer electrical energy from one conductor to another through magnetic flux. The magnetic field generated by the applied voltage to the first coil (primary coil) reaches the second coil (secondary coil) through the magnetic iron core, thus completing the circuit.

What Is the Purpose of Transformers?

Transformers are used to distribute, convert, step-up, or step-down electrical energy. They also serve to change the current or voltage.

Energy transfer from one circuit to another occurs through electromagnetic induction.

The purpose of using transformers varies depending on the need and the application area. Transformers are manufactured in different types to meet different purposes and spaces, whether for residential use, electronic devices, or city power grids.

At Trans-El, we provide the shipment of high-quality transformer types that comply with international standards and meet specific needs.